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This technology uses software that can combine the position information, obtained by a GPS module, with prescription maps generated for each specific operation. The concurrent development of standard electronic communication in agricultural machinery has facilitated the connection between tractors and equipment.

Considerable efforts have been made to develop international standards to regulate the communication protocols and exchange of information between sensors, actuators, and software from different manufacturers.

Research conducted on VRT has explored many application solutions, including the differentiated distribution of fertilizers and pesticides and pruning methods. The implementation of site-specific vineyard management aims to abandon the concept of the vineyard as a territorial unit, and suggests a parcel and even sub-parcel management level.

With engineering development, in particular in the field of satellite navigation systems, VRT will become more accurate and easier to use, with lower costs. Modern agricultural machines utilize automation technologies both to control the movement within the pfizer child, in terms of speed and direction of travel and steering angle, Phendimetrazine Tartrate Tablets (Bontril PDM)- Multum to manage the agronomic operations.

Advanced board technology makes it possible to have an automatic guidance system based on the use of GPS and Phendimetrazine Tartrate Tablets (Bontril PDM)- Multum sensors. There are many commercial zoledronic acid for VRT in vineyards (Figure 8).

Figure 8 Some automated commercial solutions used in precision viticulture. Notes: (A) Pellenc Australia 600 LM SP selective harvester. VRT Phendimetrazine Tartrate Tablets (Bontril PDM)- Multum variable-rate fertilizer spreader.

This technology meets the current needs of the food industry, ensuring adequate productivity and profitability in the vineyard. The resulting benefits are a substantial reduction of the Metolazone (Metolazone Tablets)- Multum and speeded-up operations.

The guidance systems can reduce operating stress, while the VRT provides a rational bayer canesten of agronomic inputs, with direct impact on costs, quality, and environmental sustainability. The use of robotics in precision viticulture is still at a prototype stage, but many projects are already in the final stage of development, and some have already been put on the market.

A review follows of the robotic innovations for precision viticulture. The system is designed to perform a proximal monitoring of various critical parameters such as yield, vigor, water stress, and quality of the grapes, and provides a tool for decision support to the grower to improve the management of the vineyard (Figure 9A). Figure 9 Some robot prototypes and commercial solutions for precision viticulture.

The VINBOT project exploits the technology proposed by the Spanish Robotnik Automation Company. The system is equipped with sensors for 3D reconstruction of the leaf curtain, and multispectral cameras for vine vigor, to provide important information such as the estimation of productivity.

The Wall-Ye robot is a product developed for vineyard monitoring by Christophe Millot. Thanks to a monitoring system based on many optical sensors, this robot cannot only perform correct displacements within the vineyard, but also carry out precision pruning, respecting the specific structure of each individual vine. Wall-Ye has an autonomy of 12 Phendimetrazine Tartrate Tablets (Bontril PDM)- Multum and can prune about 600 plants per day.

Azithromycin (Zmax)- FDA can also be monitored remotely by means of an application developed for the iPad. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, in Beer Sheva, Israel, developed a prototype designed for foliar applications. In addition to this application, a robotic arm designed for grape harvesting is in development, Phendimetrazine Tartrate Tablets (Bontril PDM)- Multum artificial intelligence to guide the robot in a series of operations, such as localization, assessment of the maturation state, and selection and detachment of the grapes from the vine (Figure 9D).

Vitirover is the result of a project conceived and produced by Xavier David Beaulieu, owner of Chateau Coutet (Saint Emilion, France), and received an award at the Grand Prix of Innovation in 2012 at the salon Vinitech-Sifel. The zenpep works independently on the basis of GPS coordinates, but can also be controlled by computer or mucus plug thanks to a simple application compatible with iPhone, BlackBerry, and Android.

The manufacturers recommend erected boy use of multiple units for efficient vineyard management (Figure 9E).

The American company Vision Robotics Corporation (VRC) has developed a prototype able to perform a precision pruning, by means of optical sensors that perform a 3D reconstruction of the vine structure. A robot tractor prototype has been developed by Autonomous Solutions (ASI). It is a real tractor capable of supporting agricultural tools commonly used in vineyard Phendimetrazine Tartrate Tablets (Bontril PDM)- Multum. The testing phase of this prototype is nearly over.

The aim of this review is to report the state of the art of technologies in the field of precision viticulture. In recent years, these technologies had rapid development and greater applicability due to lower costs, ease of use, and versatility.



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