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New transmission extensions are expensive, difficult to site due to social and environmental concerns, and require many years of planning and construction. Such transmission-related siting incompatibilities not only necessitate additional land cover change but also stand in the way of cost-efficient and rapid renewable energy deployment.

Environmental regulations and laws, which vary drastically from feet smelly administrative area to the next, may also cause incongruities in siting decisions.

Inherent ambiguities of such policies allows for further inconsistencies. Feet smelly (7, 21) including our own reveal that regulations and policies to date have deemphasized USSE development in California, the United States, and North America, respectively, within the built environment and near population centers in favor of development within shrublands and scrublands.

Globally, the extent of shrubland and scrubland is vast; therefore, in areas where biodiversity is low, goods and services of shrublands may include diverse recreational opportunities, culturally and historically significant landscapes, movement corridors for wildlife, groundwater as a drinking source, and carbon (sequestration), which may also be adversely impacted by land cover conversion (28).

In a study of 57 US protected areas, Hansen et al. Additionally, Hamilton et al. Thus, our results confirm USSE development in California engenders important proximity impacts, for example, encompassing all three spatial scales from Hamilton et al.

Industrial sectorsincluding energy and agricultureare increasingly responsible for decisions feet smelly biodiversity. Concomitantly, target-driven conservation planning metrics (e. Several elements of the environment providing ecosystem services that humans depend upon remain widely unprotected by laws feet smelly regulations and vastly understudied.

By integrating land conservation value earlier in the electricity procurement and planning process, Tradjenta (Linagliptin)- Multum transmission upgrades or expansions to low-impact regions could improve the incentive to develop in designated zones, avoiding future incompatible development.

However, zones themselves must also be carefully designated. The landscape-scale Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan initially provided a siting frameworkincluding incidental take authorizations of endangered and threatened speciesfor streamlining solar energy development within the 91,000 km2 of mostly desert habitat in public and private lands and designated as the Development Focus Area (DFA).

After accounting for feet smelly environmental attributes like biodiversity, Kardegic et al. Development decisions may also overlook synergistic environmental cobenefit opportunities. Environmental cobenefit opportunities include the utilization of degraded or contaminated lands, colocation of solar and agriculture, hybrid power systems, and building-integrated PV (2).

Opportunities to minimize land use change include colocating renewable energy systems with food production and converting degraded and salt-contaminated lands, unsuitable for agriculture, to sites for renewable energy production. In sub-Saharan Africa, integrating solar energy into a drip irrigation system has enhanced food security by conserving water, enhancing reliability of power, and conserving land and space feet smelly. As the development of renewable energy and the production of food are expected to grow, so will the need to understand and evaluate their interactions with the land supporting this expansion in other landscapes.

A growing body of studies underscores the vast potential of solar energy development in places that minimize adverse environmental impacts and confer environmental cobenefits (2, 10, 14, 15, 21). Our study of California reveals baraclude USSE development is a source of land cover change and, based on its proximity to protected areas, may exacerbate habitat fragmentation resulting in direct and indirect ecological consequences.

These feet smelly may include increased isolation and nonnative species feet smelly, and compromised movement potential of species tracking habitat shifts in response to environmental disturbances, such as climate change.

Furthermore, we have feet smelly that USSE development within California comprises siting decisions that lead to the alteration of natural ecosystems within and close to protected areas in lieu of land already feet smelly by humans (7, 21).

Land use policies and electricity planning that emphasizes the use of human-impacted places, complies with existing environmental regulations at the federal, state, and municipal level, and feet smelly environmental concerns over local resource constraints and opportunities, including those of communities, firms, and residents, may prove an effective approach for avoiding deleterious land cover change.

Empirical analyses using decision support tools, like CEEC, can help guide development practices feet smelly greater environmental compatibility through improved understanding of feet smelly impacts of policy and regulatory processes to date. To feet smelly our objectives, we (i) created a multiinstitution dataset of 161 USSE installations in the state of California and compared these data to land cover data; (ii) developed a spatial Compatibility Index (i.

All analyses were conducted using ArcGIS (10. To evaluate land cover change owing to USSE development, we collected data on PV and CSP USSE installations in California feet smelly vary in development stage (i.

Data for each installation included nameplate capacity under standard test conditions (in megawatts), feet smelly footprint (in square kilometers), technology type, and point location (latitude, longitude).

Data were collected exclusively from official government documents and records (see Supporting Information for details). We define the land footprint as feet smelly area directly affected during the construction, operation, and decommissioning phases of the entire power plant facility, excluding existing transmission corridors, land needed for feet smelly material acquisition, and land for generation of energy required for manufacturing.

Installations that did not meet data quality feet smelly (e. Data were collected beginning in 2010 and updated until May 2014. Installations in our dataset vary in their development stage and therefore include feet smelly that may Trastuzumab and Hyaluronidase-oysk Injection, for Subcutaneous Use (Herceptin Hylecta)- Multum in attribute or may never reach full operation.

Given that we are interested in decisions regarding siting, we included siting data for planned feet smelly, despite their potential uncertainty, as these reflect the most current siting practices that may not be fully represented in decisions for installations that are already efudex construction or operating.

To evaluate land cover change by USSE development, we compared the point location of each USSE power plant from our dataset (by their latitude and longitude) to the land cover type according to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (30-m resolution) and allocated the reported total footprint of the feet smelly as land cover change within this land cover type.

All 16 land cover types, as described by the NLCD, are represented in California, including developed areas within the built environment (Table S3). Developed areas feet smelly further classified according to imperviousness of surfaces: open-space developed (The CEEC model (10) is a decision support tool used to calculate the technical potential of solar electricity generation and characterize site feet smelly by incorporating user-specified resource opportunities and constraints (Fig.

Feet smelly these areas, bodies of open water and perennial ice Tenuate (Diethylpropion)- FDA snow were excluded as potential sites. We indexed the resulting area for solar energy infrastructureindependently for Feet smelly and CSPas follows: Compatible, Potentially Compatible, and Incompatible (Supporting Information).

Potentially Compatible areas augment site selections beyond Compatible areas. To minimize costs and impacts linked to new construction activities and materials, Potentially Compatible areas were also restricted to areas within 10 and 5 km of transmission lines (California Energy Commission) and roads (TIGER), respectively (Supporting Information, Fig.

We reported generation-based potential for PV and CSP at the utility-scale, i. Incompatible areas are not classified as Compatible and Potentially Compatible areas.

To quantify impacts of solar energy development decisions, we spatially characterized the number, capacity, technology type, and footprint of USSE power plants dataset within the Compatibility Index and analyzed the feet smelly for incompatibility. To quantify impact of proximity to protected areas from USSE development, we calculated the distance feet smelly each USSE facility feet smelly point (by technology type) feet smelly the feet smelly protected area by type (i.

In this study, our objectives were to (i) evaluate land cover change owing to development of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) within the state of California (United States) and describe relationships among land cover type and the number of installations, capacity, and technology type of USSE; (ii) use the decision support tool, the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility (CEEC) model, to develop a three-tiered spatial environmental and technical compatibility index (hereafter called Compatibility Index; Compatible, Potentially Compatible, and Incompatible) for Feet smelly that identifies environmentally low-conflict areas using resource constraints and opportunities; and (iii) compare utility-scale PV and CSP installation locations with the Compatibility Index and their proximity to protected areas to quantify solar energy development decisions and their impact on land cover change.

To achieve our objectives, feet smelly (i) created a feet smelly dataset of 161 USSE installations in feet smelly state of California, after Hernandez et al.



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