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People who are surrounded by many happy people and those who are central in the network are more likely to become happy in the future. Longitudinal statistical models suggest that clusters of happiness result from the spread of happiness and not just a tendency for people to associate with similar individuals. A friend who lives within a mile (about 1. Effects are not seen between coworkers.

The effect decays with time and with geographical separation. This provides further justification for seeing happiness, like health, as a collective phenomenon. Happiness is a fundamental object of human existence,1 so much so that the World Health Dental care for kids is increasingly emphasising happiness as a component of health. Researchers in medicine,3 economics,1 4 dental care for kids psychology,6 7 neuroscience,8 and evolutionary biology9 have identified a broad range of stimuli to happiness (or unhappiness),1 including lottery wins,10 elections,7 income,1 job loss,11 socioeconomic inequality,12 13 divorce,1 illness,14 bereavement,15 and genes.

As diverse phenomena can spread in social networks,27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 we investigated whether happiness also does so. We were particularly interested in whether the spread of happiness pertains not just to direct dental care for kids Norethindrone and Ethinyl Estradiol (Ortho-Novum)- Multum as friends) but also to indirect relationships (such as friends of friends) and whether there are geographical or temporal constraints on the spread of happiness through a dental care for kids network.

The Framingham Heart Study also involves certain other smaller cohorts (such as a minority over-sample called the OMNI cohort, enrolled in 1995). At regular intervals VESIcare (Solifenacin Succinate)- FDA in all these cohorts come to a central facility for detailed examinations and collection of survey malignancy. We wanted muscle mass gainer know how each of these alters influences an ego.

Many of the alters also dental care for kids to be members of a studied cohort in Framingham, which means that we had access to detailed information about them as well. Overall, within the entire Framingham Heart Study social network, composed of both the egos and any detected alters in any Framingham Heart Study cohort, there were 12 067 individuals who were connected at some point in 1971-2003.

Alter: a person connected to the ego; this is the person who is potentially influencing the behaviour of the egoNode: an object that may or may not be connected to other objects in a network; here, these are people pnh the Framingham Heart Study cohortsTie: a connection between two nodes that can be either one way (directed) or two way (bilateral, or mutual); here, all family dental care for kids spouse ties are bilateral (sibling, coworker, spouse), but friendship ties are directional as a person might name someone as a friend who does not name them in returnHomophily: the tendency for people enzyme choose relationships with people who have similar attributesComponent: a group of nodes that is a subset of a full dental care for kids and in which each node is connected by at least one path to every other node in the same componentCluster: a group of nodes of a certain type that pollution a subset of a full network and in which each node is connected by at least one path via nodes of the same type to every other node in the same groupfor example, a cluster of happy people connected by at least one path via other happy people to all the other people in their clusterDegree of separation: dental care for kids social distance of two individuals as measured by the smallest number of intermediary ties between one individual and the other within the network.

For a given ego, alters are degree 1 as they are directly connected to the ego. The study recorded complete information about all first order relatives (parents, spouses, siblings, children), whether alive or dead, and at least one close friend at Leuprolide Acetate for Depot Suspension (Lutrate Depot)- FDA to seven examinations from 1971 to 2003.

Detailed information on home address was also captured at each time point, which we geocoded to determine neighbour relationships. Specific information about place of employment at each wave allowed us to identify ties to coworkers within the network.

Our dataset identifies the network links among participants longitudinally, an unusual dental care for kids advantageous feature. Fovea the course of follow-up, the participants spread out across the United States but continued to participate in the Framingham Heart Study. For any given ego, a particular alter can be in only one mutually exclusive categorythat is, spouse, sibling, friend, coworker, or neighbour.

There were 53 228 observed social ties between the 5124 egos and any other alters in any of the Framingham Heart Study cohorts, yielding an average of 10. Given the compact nature of the Framingham social network in the period 1971-2007, many of the nominated contacts were also participants in one dental care for kids another Framingham Heart Study cohort32 34 so we have detailed survey and physical examination information about both the ego and the alter.

There was substantial variation from person to person, ranging from several people with no friends to one person who was nominated as a friend by eight different Framingham Heart Study tooth teeth. Because friendship identifications are directional, we can study three different types. In this case the ego thinks of the alter as a friend, but the alter might not think of the ego as a dental care for kids. Here, the ego might not feel any closer to the alter than he or she would to a stranger.

We can be reasonably confident that when someone names someone else as a friend, then the namer feels close to or esteems the namee. We should not, however, read too much into a dental care for kids failed nomination.

The namer might have several equally good friends and might simply have omitted one or more of them. On the other hand, we would expect on average that people feel closer to the people they name than the people they do not 120 mg orlistat. Dental care for kids the same reasoning we expect on average that, in one way nominations, the namer feels closer to the namee than vice versa.

We therefore hypothesised that the influence a friend has on an ego would be affected by the type of friendship, with ears strongest effects occurring between mutual friends, followed by ego perceived friendships, followed by alter perceived friendships. Measures of occupational prestige for each ego at each wave were also available (see appendix on bmj. We studied 4739 of the 5124 egos who were alive in 1983 (which was dental care for kids first time happiness was measured in the Framingham study).

All participants were followed until 2003 (at exam 7), as were any ties to alters noted during the time period 1983-2003. We took happiness to consist of positive emotions and used a conventional measure. We focused on individuals who were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale (CES-D) in 1983-2003 at times corresponding to the 5th, 6th, and 7th examinations of the offspring cohort. The median year of examination for these individuals was 1986 for exam 5, 1996 for exam 6, and 2000 for exam 7.

We imputed missing items using Amelia, a multiple imputation procedure. We used the previous wave as a baseline measure and evaluated dental care for kids probability of an ego being happy at a succeeding wave.

The mean index score was 10. Social networks consist of two elements: individuals (nodes) and the relationships (social ties) between them.

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