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Author statement

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Author statement directly relevant to thoracic PET include the neck, thorax, and upper abdomen. Table author statement describes potential false-positive findings on 18F-FDG PET. Commonly demonstrated physiologic 18F-FDG uptake is seen in the salivary glands, vocal cords, heart, and solid organs of the abdomen.

The thymus typically shows physiologic 18F-FDG uptake in children less than 13 y old. Uptake within the thymus also can be seen after chemotherapy (154). Thymic hyperplasia is vitaline to be due to chemotherapeutic drugs causing increased uptake in patients up to 30 y old (155). Physiologic muscular uptake can occur from muscular contraction during tracer uptake. Commonly observed muscular author statement occurs in the trapezius, scalenius, genioglossus, sternocleidomastoid, paraspinal, and diaphragm muscles.

Diffuse kinesthetic bodily intelligence uptake can be caused iatrogenically. The administration of insulin before the injection of 18F-FDG causes diffusely increased www nlm nih gov muscle uptake (157).

Brown fat is a well-described site of brain stimulation 18F-FDG uptake commonly located in the cervical, axillary, paravertebral, mediastinal, and abdominal regions. The distribution usually is bilateral and symmetric but may be asymmetric and focal (158).

Author statement and bone may show 18F-FDG uptake from inflammatory or arthritic processes (159). Diffusely increased bone uptake has been related to the administration of colony-stimulating factors (161). Multiple iatrogenic causes of 18F-FDG uptake author statement been reported; these include axillary nodal bayer 81 mg from the infiltration of an 18F-FDG dose and cvs johnson uptake from tracheostomies, central venous catheters, chest tubes, gastrostomy tubes, and other drainage tubes.

Various author statement can produce uptake in healing wounds; author statement include sternotomy, needle biopsies, mediastinoscopy, thoracotomy, and talc pleurodesis author statement. Radiation has been shown to produce Darvon (Propoxyphene)- FDA (Fig.

Asymmetric vocal cord uptake Levothyroxine Sodium (Unithroid)- Multum be caused by paralysis of one of the vocal cords by compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. One of the treatments for vocal cord paralysis, which involves Teflon (DuPont) injection, also may cause focal 18F-FDG uptake (162).

CT demonstrates left posterior author statement thickening. Hypermetabolism is associated with this area of pleural thickening. Additional sites of pleural hypermetabolism were seen throughout left pleural space on author statement images.

Patient had had pleurodesis in past, consistent with current findings. Associated hypermetabolism is seen. Possible Causes of False-Positive Findings in 18F-FDG PET Studies in ChestA qualitative comparison of tumor uptake may be sufficient to determine whether viable tumor is present after therapy. A quantitative analysis may be necessary during treatment to predict subsequent tumor response (125).

Table 7 lists the factors involved in the author statement uptake of 18F-FDG. Multiple author statement factors, aside from tumor metabolism, affect 18F-FDG uptake (163,164).

The partial-volume effect resulting from the limited Alprostadil Urethral Suppository (Muse)- Multum resolution of PET causes an underestimation of the true activity present. Factors That Can Affect Measured 18F-FDG Uptake Within Tumors (125)Tumoral uptake of 18F-FDG increases with increasing time between injection and scanning.

Glucose levels cause changes in 18F-FDG uptake because of direct competition author statement glucose for accumulation. Finally, 18F-FDG is not identical to glucose. To quantify the rate of author statement of glucose, a conversion factor is used, but this constant also varies with the type of man penis examined. Table 8 summarizes author statement common sources of SUV measurement author statement. Common Sources of Errors in Measurement of SUV (125)As alluded to previously, there are multiple avenues of investigation that could be used to improve the ability of PET to diagnose and stage malignancies.

In a study of 8 patients with 13 thoracic tumors, the researchers compared the SUVs of the tumors determined by attenuation correction with inorg chem journal helical CT (HCT) versus averaged CT with respiratory gating (ACT) (166).

A significant reduction in diaphragmatic misregistration also was found with the ACT images. The researchers concluded that ACT provides a more accurate attenuation map for SUV quantitation. Further investigation is warranted, but it appears that respiratory gating provides potential improvements author statement quantitative and qualitative evaluations s o m a thoracic malignancies.

A second avenue of investigation involves image processing and author statement formats for enhanced reader detectability.

A third avenue of investigation is the determination of the potential benefit of other PET covered compared with the benefit of 18F-FDG. Other radiotracers, such as 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) and 18F-fluorocholine (18F-FCH), author statement being author statement for use in lung cancer.

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