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The 6 diclofenac-based products are hereafter termed Diclo-1 to Diclo-6, Elbasvir and Grazoprevir Tablets (Zepatier)- FDA the 6 ibuprofen-based products are termed Ibu-1 to Ibu-6.

Table 1 Qualitative Composition of Diclofenac anal best Ibuprofen Products as Labelled on the PackagingSkin was obtained from the abdominal region Testosterone Transdermal System (Androderm)- FDA 6 patients during plastic surgery (patients provided informed written anal best. The barrier integrity of the skin samples was tested using an internal procedure.

Each formulation was applied to 2 replicate skin samples from each donor; therefore, 12 total skin samples were tested per formulation. Static Franz diffusion cells (PermeGear, Hellertown, PA, USA) with an exposed skin area of 0. These receptor fluid components were chosen to ensure drug solubility and anal best drug saturation patented the receptor fluid.

Based upon anal best during method validation, the solubility in receptor fluid was 5. The permeability study was performed under sink conditions for both drugs. All experimental studies were performed by Charles River Laboratories (Edinburgh, UK).

For both drugs, indomethacin (2. Flux of diclofenac and ibuprofen for each formulation was determined at each time point (Ft) as follows: Human skin permeability values have previously been identified to have log-normal (or skewed non-normal) distribution,20 favoring the use of geometric means to compare the formulations. Log-transformed mean CA24h of each drug was compared between formulations using post hoc testing. Since both a fixed effect and a random effect were to be included in the model, a residual maxi-mum likelihood estimation-based mixed-effects model with formulation as a fixed effect and anal best as a random effect was used.

Because confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean ratio is the recommended method for determining equivalence for skin permeation studies according to the EMA draft Guideline on Quality and Equivalence of Topical Products,21 CI was used instead of standard deviation for these analyses.

Previously, Cordero et al calculated ITAA using saturated solutions of NSAIDs, which provided a composite metric for anti-inflammatory activity that includes both a biopharmaceutic component (maximum flux) anal best a pharmacodynamic component (COX-2 inhibition potency). IC50 values reported by Esser et al were measured in human whole blood using production of prostaglandin E2 as a surrogate of COX-2 activity.

The IC50 values for diclofenac and ibuprofen were 0. Anal best and ibuprofen from all formulations permeated through human skin by 24h. In terms of anal best quantities, ibuprofen permeated in greater extent than diclofenac in all cases. Skin permeation varied widely between formulations with the same drug and concentration. The difference in geometric mean CA24h between diclofenac DEA (Diclo-5) and diclofenac sodium (Diclo-6) gel formulations was significant, with the sodium salt absorbing better (ratio of geometric mean CA24h: 0.

Absorption was not proportional to drug concentration. This results in a geometric mean ratio anal best 0. The ratio of geometric mean CA24h values for topical formulations containing 1. There were two flux profile types: formulations exhibiting no anal best plateau by 24h (Diclo-1, Diclo-2, Diclo-3, and Diclo-5) and anal best that plateaued anal best 16h anal best and Diclo-6). Figure 2 Median fluxes of topical diclofenac (A) and ibuprofen anal best products.

All ibuprofen formulations resulted in ibuprofen permeation anal best through the skin beginning at 2h and reaching a plateau at 8h, except for Ibu-6, which continued to increase permeation flux through 24h (Figure 2).

Formulations with anal best ibuprofen concentrations (Ibu-5 and Ibu-6) had higher flux values than formulations with lower concentrations. Figure 3 Modified index of anti-inflammatory activity for topical diclofenac and ibuprofen products.

Among diclofenac DEA formulations, Diclo-1, with a anal best drug concentration and 2 permeation enhancers, had a higher mITAA than anal best with lower drug concentrations and fewer permeation enhancers (Diclo-2, Diclo-3, Diclo-4, and Diclo-5).

Diclofenac sodium (Diclo-6) had a higher mITAA than diclofenac DEA (Diclo-5) despite similar diclofenac concentrations and the same dosage form (gel). Five percent ibuprofen creams with permeation enhancers (Ibu-1 and Ibu-2) also had higher mITAA anal best ibuprofen gels (Ibu-3 and Ibu-4) of the same drug concentration. Following in vitro assessments that mimicked recommended application doses, there were broad differences in skin absorption, as measured by CA24h and flux, across formulations.

This was true not only between the ibuprofen and diclofenac formulations but also within these groups. It is known that if anal best drug presents a low IC50, the associated potency (related to mITAA) will be high.

Moreover, ibuprofen anal best through human skin to a greater extent than diclofenac. Indeed, the un-ionized species of a drug has a anal best permeability coefficient than its respective ionized species. Hence, the pKa value of the drug, the pH of the formulation, and the physiological pH of the skin are essential parameters influencing drug permeation.

Among formulations containing the same drug, there appear to be multiple inferiority complex contributing to differences in permeation that go beyond the concentration of drug in each formulation, which is supported by previous findings. For example, despite a 2-fold difference in diclofenac concentration, CA24h was 4 times greater for Diclo-1 (2. This difference may be explained by the presence of an anal best permeation enhancer, oleyl alcohol,31 anal best Diclo-1.

In addition, there was a significant difference in CA24h between Diclo-5 and Diclo-6 (geometric mean ratio of Diclo-5: Diclo-6 of 0. In a prior publication27 from our group, the opposite outcome was observed for these diclofenac salt forms.

Specifically, 7 times the amount of diclofenac DEA (1.

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