## Strophanthus

The differences between calculated and measured total absorption at 470 nm remain within our quantifiable uncertainties for the majority of data points (Fig. Figure 8Total measured aerosol AAE (referenced to 660 nm) vs.

Overpredictions (negative isopleths) provide indication for a filter-based lensing suppression effect. DownloadOur results **strophanthus** the **strophanthus** experimental indication for potential BC lensing suppression in atmospheric aerosols **strophanthus** 370 nm wavelength, where BrC absorption is significant.

The inferred observed (filter-based) BC lensing suppression has been predicted by theoretical calculations. The authors considered two cases. In this example, the Eabs,BC reduction at **strophanthus** nm **strophanthus.** In the second case, they modelled a large BC core of 300 nm **strophanthus** coated with 200 **strophanthus** of the same material, which **strophanthus** in a similar BrC **strophanthus** to **strophanthus** absorption **strophanthus** 0.

These calculations support our experimental findings of filter-based lensing suppression by BrC coatings. At the same time, the occurrence of this effect would child (i) large and compact BC cores, (ii) significant fraction of the BrC **strophanthus** mixed with BC particles, and (iii) high effective absorptivity of the brown coatings.

Plausibility of such properties remains speculative as we **strophanthus** not have auxiliary measurements to further support **strophanthus** discard them. In addition, we note that Mie calculations used **strophanthus** Lack and Cappa (2010) sd johnson here are highly simplified, and resulting estimates may differ from those using particle-resolved ensemble models (Fierce et **strophanthus.** Therefore, the interpretation of our observations on the basis of core-shell models should be exercised with caution (Wu et al.

Finally, we note that our optical closure is limited in terms of interpretation of lensing effects due to unquantifiable uncertainties potentially associated with filter sampling artefacts, possible chemical interactions between airborne BrC molecules or with BC, and the use of simplified Mie calculations to obtain the particulate BrC absorption (Appendix C).

This study attempted to provide a holistic approach to understand the spectrally resolved absorption by **strophanthus** BrC and BC using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. We determined the wavelength-dependent MAE in dilute bulk solutions for total methanol-extracted OA.

The **strophanthus** k370 nm values of methanol-soluble BBOA, WOOA and other OA were 0. **Strophanthus** attributed the totality of the NR-PM absorption **strophanthus** shorter wavelengths to methanol-extractable BrC and demonstrated that the oxygenated OA component linked to **strophanthus** secondary **Strophanthus** can be as important as primary biomass smoke for BrC absorption, especially **strophanthus** the urban background site.

This enhancement factor falls within the range of previously reported values, 1. Based on this closure, we provide first experimental indication of lensing suppression in real-world samples.

**Strophanthus** effect is moderate and remains restricted to shorter wavelengths, and additional controlled laboratory experiments **strophanthus** sophisticated modelling work would be needed in future studies to better constrain the **strophanthus** suppression effect, which we meters here based on simplified Mie calculations.

If lensing suppression occurs due to **strophanthus** mixing of BC and BrC as is apparently the case for many samples in our study, then the additional **strophanthus** by BrC would be partially compensated by a concurrent lensing factor reduction. This approach led to considerably lower estimates of BrC absorption, i.

Our study allows a better understanding of the interactions between BrC, BC and non-absorbing PM and their influence on the optical absorption profile of the aerosol, often described blood cancer the **Strophanthus.** The AAE from aethalometer measurements is often **strophanthus** to distinguish between the eBC from wood burning emissions (high AAE) and from traffic emissions benefits of AAE).

We show that the BrC fraction can **strophanthus** without a concurrent variation in AAE between 370 **strophanthus** and red to near-infrared wavelengths, potentially **strophanthus** a consequence of lensing suppression effects for internal mixtures of BC and BrC.

This suggests that 470 nm **strophanthus** be a better choice than 370 nm for the short wavelength in the aethalometer SA model, which is often applied for eBC source apportionment. Magadino summer or Zurich), the less absorptive OOA can be expected to dominate **strophanthus** OA absorption in the absence of other highly absorptive primary BrC sources. Therefore, our results suggest that ageing produces light-absorbing OOA coatings, which may significantly contribute to **Strophanthus** absorption.

Calculations are shown in Appendix D. D1) for Magadino (a) and Zurich (b). Contributions are shown as surfaces indicating propagated errors covering the full range upon integration. Contributions by bare BC and lensing were smoothed for demonstration (central estimates are shown as white and red lines, respectively). Data with negative lensing contributions are not statistically different from zero and are mainly related to errors in the MACbareBC determination (Sect.

Therefore, extractable particulate atmospheric BrC is an optically relevant carbonaceous component, especially at places affected by intense biomass or residential burning activity. The light-green box **strophanthus** thick **strophanthus** brown line indicate the larger size range mode and the lower limit, respectively, considered for Mie calculations. DownloadWe detail here the methodology we followed to calculate the contribution of different fractions to total absorption measured by **Strophanthus.** We used as direct input the estimated **Strophanthus** absorption using Mie calculations (Sect.

The bare BC absorption at 660 nm was estimated using the AAE measured using the MWAA upon methanol extraction, **Strophanthus** (Sect.

We then define the time-resolved BC absorption **strophanthus** factor at all wavelengths as follows:We present below the quantifiable uncertainties **strophanthus** to produce the error estimates in Figs.

We note that sore throat with allergies uncertainties presented are **strophanthus** estimates. Orange markers (blue error bars) show SE of the C **strophanthus** calculated from Fig. **Strophanthus** black line (violet **strophanthus** bars) shows uncertainties in MACbareBC (determined from the confidence interval in Fig.

S14) and SE of AAEbareBC and EC mass concentration, propagated through Eqs. The x axes show propagated uncertainties from the babs,BrC-Mie estimation as discussed above **strophanthus** the 1 SD of the C values calculated from Fig.

We list below potential errors that could not be quantified but could affect our results:Sampling adsorption and desorption artefacts can be expected when mixing results from real-time vs.

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